Dislocation-The shoulder joint is the most frequently
dislocated major joint of the body often caused by a significant force
that separates the ball away from the joint’s socket (glenoid)
Bursitis. Bursitis often occurs when tendinitis and
impingement syndrome cause inflammation of the bursa sacs that protect
Impingement syndrome- Impingement syndrome is caused
by the excessive squeezing or rubbing of the rotator cuff and shoulder
blade. The pain associated with the syndrome is a result of an inflamed
bursa over the rotator cuff,and /or inflammation of the rotator cuff
tendons,and/or calcium deposits in tendons due to wear and tear. Shoulder
impingement syndrome can lead to a torn rotator cuff.
Tendinosis- Tendinosis of the shoulder is caused when
the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon become worn out and occasionally
inflamed.,usually as a result of being pinched of most of the rotator
cuff. When the rotator cuff tendon becomes inflamed and thickened,it may
become trapped under the acromion.
Rotator cuff tear- A rotator cuff tear involves one or
more rotator cuff Tendons becoming inflamed from over use,aging,a fall on
an outstretched hand,or a collision.
Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder). Frozen shoulder
is a severely restrictive condition frequently caused by the injury that,
in turn,leads to lack of use due to pain. Intermittent periods of use may
cause inflammation and adhesions to grow between the joint surfaces. Thus
restricting the motion. There is also a lack of synovial fluid to
lubricate the gap between the arm bone and socket that normally helpshe
shoulder joint to move. This restricted space between the capsule and
ball of the humerus distinguishes adhesive capsulitis from the less
complicated condition known as stiff shoulder.
Fracture. A fracture is a partial or total crack or
break through a bone that Usually occurs due to a impact injury.
Causes of Shoulder Problems
Although the shoulder is the most
movable joint in the body it is also an unstable joint because of its range of
motion. Because the ball of the upper arm Is larger than the socket of the
shoulder,it is suscepitible to injury. The shoulder joint is also supported by
soft tisuues, muscles,tendons,and ligaments which are also subject to
injury,overuse,and under use.
Degenerative conditions and other
diseases in the body may also contribute To the shoulder problems,or generate
pain that travels along nerves to the shoulder.
In addition to a complete medical
history and physical examination (to determine range-of-motion,location of
pain,and level of joint instability),diagnostics procedures for shoulder
problems may include the following:
a) X – ray
b) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
c) Computed tomography scan (also
called a CT OR CAT scan)
d) Electromyogram (EMG). A test to
evaluate nerve and muscle function.
e) Ultrasound. A diagnostic
technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the
f) Laboratory tests( to determine if
other problems may be the cause)
g) Arthroscopy. A minimally –
invasive diagnostic and treatment procedure used for conditions of a joint.
This procedures uses a small,lighted, arthroscope which is inserted in to the
joint through a small incision in the joint. Images of the inside of the joint
are projected on to a screen; used to evaluate any degenerative and /or
arthritic change in the joint;to detect bone diseases and tumors;to determine
the cause of bone pain and inflammation.