A bursa is a closed, fluid-filled
sac that functions as a cushion and gilding surface to reduce friction between
tissues. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons near the large
joints,such as in the shoulders,elbows,hips and knees. When the bursa becomes
inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis. Bursitis is usually a temporary
condition. It may restrain motion, but generally does not cause deformity.
Causes of bursitis
injury or overuse
Symptoms of bursitis
limited range of motion.
Swelling and redness may occur if the inflamed bursa is
close to the surface (superficial).
Chronic bursitis may involve
repeated attacks of pain,swelling and tenderness which may lead to the
deterioration of muscles and a limited range of motion.
Who is at risk for bursitis?
Bursitis most often occurs in people
who are over weight, or older. Bursitis may also occur by over using an
affected limb,or by using an affected limb incorrectly.
Different types of bursitis
Al though bursitis can occur
anywhere in the body where bursae are located,
There are several specific types of
bursitis,including the following:
Posterior Achilles tendon bursitis. This type of
bursitis, also called Haglund’s Deformity,is located between the skin of
the heel and the Achilles tendon (Which attaches the calf muscles to the
heel). Aggravated by a type of walking that presses the soft heel tissue
to the hard back support of a shoe,this type of Bursitis occurs
mostly in young women.
Hip bursitis. Also called Trochanteric bursitis, hip
bursitis is often the result of Injury,over use spinal
abnormalities,arthritis,or surgery. This type of bursitis is More
common in women and middle-aged and older people.
Elbow bursitis. Elbow bursitis is caused by the
inflammation of the olecranon Bursa located between the skin and bones of
the elbow. Elbow bursitis can be caused by injury or constant pressure on
the elbow( for example,when leaning On a hard surface).
Knee bursitis. Bursitis in the knee is also called
goosefoot bursitis or pes anserine bursitis. The pes anserine bursa is
located between the shin bone and the three tendons of the hamstring
muscles,on the inside of the knee. This type of bursitis may be caused by
lack of stretching before exercise,tight harmstring Muscles,being
overweight, arthritis or out-turning of the knee or lower leg.
Kneecap bursitis. Also called prepatellar bursitis,this
type of bursitis is common In people who sit on their knees a
lot,such as carpet layers and plumbers.
In addition to a complete medical
history and physical examination,diagnostic pProcedure for bursitis may include
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic
Aspiration. A procedure that involves removal of fluid
from the swollen
Bursa to exclude infection or gout
as causes of bursitis.
Blood tests. Lab tests which are done to confirm or
eliminate other conditions.
Treatment for bursitis
Aseptic bursitis. A noninfectious
condition caused by inflammation resulting
From local soft –tissue trauma or
Treatment may include:
R.I.C.E. Rest,Ice,Compression,and Elevation
Anti-inflammatory and pain medications
Ultrasound. A diagnostic technique which uses
high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.
Aspiration of the bursa fluid for evaluation in the
Injection of cortisone in to the affected area
Septic bursitis. Bursa that becomes
infected with bacteria.
Treatment may include:
Repeated aspiration of the inflamed fluid.
drainage and removal of the infected bursa sac (bursectomy).