A bursa is a closed, fluid-filled sac that functions as a cushion and gilding surface to reduce friction between tissues. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons near the large joints,such as in the shoulders,elbows,hips and knees. When the bursa becomes inflamed, the condition is known as bursitis. Bursitis is usually a temporary condition. It may restrain motion, but generally does not cause deformity.
Causes of bursitis
- injury or overuse
- thyroid disease.
Symptoms of bursitis
- localized tenderness
- limited range of motion.
- Swelling and redness may occur if the inflamed bursa is close to the surface (superficial).
Chronic bursitis may involve repeated attacks of pain,swelling and tenderness which may lead to the deterioration of muscles and a limited range of motion.
Who is at risk for bursitis?
Bursitis most often occurs in people who are over weight, or older. Bursitis may also occur by over using an affected limb,or by using an affected limb incorrectly.
Different types of bursitis
Al though bursitis can occur anywhere in the body where bursae are located,
There are several specific types of bursitis,including the following:
- Posterior Achilles tendon bursitis. This type of bursitis, also called Haglund’s Deformity,is located between the skin of the heel and the Achilles tendon (Which attaches the calf muscles to the heel). Aggravated by a type of walking that presses the soft heel tissue to the hard back support of a shoe,this type of Bursitis occurs mostly in young women.
- Hip bursitis. Also called Trochanteric bursitis, hip bursitis is often the result of Injury,over use spinal abnormalities,arthritis,or surgery. This type of bursitis is More common in women and middle-aged and older people.
- Elbow bursitis. Elbow bursitis is caused by the inflammation of the olecranon Bursa located between the skin and bones of the elbow. Elbow bursitis can be caused by injury or constant pressure on the elbow( for example,when leaning On a hard surface).
- Knee bursitis. Bursitis in the knee is also called goosefoot bursitis or pes anserine bursitis. The pes anserine bursa is located between the shin bone and the three tendons of the hamstring muscles,on the inside of the knee. This type of bursitis may be caused by lack of stretching before exercise,tight harmstring Muscles,being overweight, arthritis or out-turning of the knee or lower leg.
- Kneecap bursitis. Also called prepatellar bursitis,this type of bursitis is common In people who sit on their knees a lot,such as carpet layers and plumbers.
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination,diagnostic pProcedure for bursitis may include the following:
- X- ray
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure.
- Aspiration. A procedure that involves removal of fluid from the swollen
Bursa to exclude infection or gout as causes of bursitis.
- Blood tests. Lab tests which are done to confirm or eliminate other conditions.
Treatment for bursitis
Aseptic bursitis. A noninfectious condition caused by inflammation resulting
From local soft –tissue trauma or strain injury.
Treatment may include:
- R.I.C.E. Rest,Ice,Compression,and Elevation
- Anti-inflammatory and pain medications
- Ultrasound. A diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.
- Aspiration of the bursa fluid for evaluation in the laboratory
- Injection of cortisone in to the affected area
Septic bursitis. Bursa that becomes infected with bacteria.
Treatment may include:
- Antibiotic medicines.
- Repeated aspiration of the inflamed fluid.
- Surgical drainage and removal of the infected bursa sac (bursectomy).