A Case Report on Metal On Metal (Alval) Reaction Revision Hip Arthroplasty Done In 2 Stage Procedure
December 22, 2019
A 64 yrs old female was admitted on
21/06/2013 for Pain in left hip since March 2013(3 and ½ months). She also
complained of inability to walk since 15 days. Patient was operated for
FRACTURE NECK OF FEMUR 6yrs back and was alright for 2 yrs. After that vague
pain started in her left Hip. Clinically left lower limb was short. Active
straight leg test not possible. Movements of hip painful and limited. The
recent X-Ray showed Dislocation of Hip Lt. Side. Planned for revision hip surgery.
Left hip was explored. There was no
glutei muscle seen. The entire area was filled with ALVAL fluid. Acetabular Cup
was removed with less difficulty. The coral stem was also removed. The upper
one third of femur was Avascular. The further procedure was deferred for
allowing the soft tissue to resolve. The entire ALVAL tissue was curetted as
much as possible. So the surgery was not preceded.
During the second stage procedure,
Revision hip with constrained hip system was done.
There are ongoing concerns regarding
metal wear debris following the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for hip
surface and total arthroplasty. A Type IV Hypersensitivity reaction to MoM
articulations has previously been identified (aseptic lymphocyte dominated
vasculitis associated lesion, ALVAL) but little is known of its incidence,
diagnosis or management. Persisting groin pain in MoM patients may be
ALVAL- (Aseptic Lymphocyte Dominated
Vasculitis Associated Lesion) is a medical reaction triggered by a soft tissue
reaction in the body causing pain and inflammation and, where present, has
affected some patients with metal on metal implants
Metallosis, another known
complication is a medical condition resulting from a build-up of metallic
debris in the surrounding soft tissue of the body. It has been reported that
Metallosis can occur in patients with metal transplants and that these metal
particles have been strongly linked to tissue damage, tumours, including
Pseudo-tumours (an accumulated mass of inflamed tissue formed as a reaction to
an irritant), high metal ion blood counts and blood poisoning.
ALVAL and Metallosis, when present
in patients who had received metal on metal hip replacements are thought to be
caused by incorrect placement of certain hip components in the patient, causing
additional wear on these components. The hip resurfacing device functions as a
metal bearing made of high carbon, cobalt and chromium alloys. If a patient is
fitted with one of these implants, and the components are not aligned properly,
then this malalignment of the bearing results in much more wear in that area,
potentially causing a high- metal ion level as the debris and particles (
generated from the friction and wear of the metal components against one
another) are released into the patient’s blood stream.
Current-generation MOM implants are
made of cobalt-chromium alloys. A few authors have reported on an unusual mode
of failure of these implants that is associated with a localized
hypersensitivity reaction and immunologic response to metal wear debris:
aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis associated lesion (ALVAL). The reported
presenting features of ALVAL include early postoperative groin pain,
radiographic loosening and osteolysis, recurrent dislocations, and periprosthetic
This is a single case reporting of a
64 years old female who was admitted for pain in her left hip since 3 and ½
months. She also complained of inability to walk since 15 days. Patient had a
fall before 6 years and was diagnosed to have Fracture Neck of Femur. She was
advised for Total Hip Metal on Metal prosthesis. She was operated with the same
6 years back. Initial 2 years after surgery she was completely alright doing
all her routine activities. After 2 years she started to experience some vague
pain over her operated hip. Initially the pain was vague but it increased
progressively with days. She managed the pain with some analgesics and
continued her routine activities.
Recently since 3 and ½ months she
complaints of severe pain in her Left hip (old operated hip) followed by
inability to walk since 15 days. On examination the Left Lower limb was
shortened. The Active straight leg test was not possible. Greater trochanter
was prominent on palpation. Range of movements was painfully restricted.
Clinical and radiological
examination revealed Posterior dislocation of hip, loosening of the Cup &
Osteolysis of the superior part of acetabulum and lateral cortex. So Decided to
explore and proceed for revision hip.
Stage 1 Procedure:
Under SA, with pt. in Rt. Lateral
position with Lt. hip facing up, the hip was exposed by lateral approach.
There was no muscle tissue, namely
the glutei which was found necrosed and fibrosed. The necrosed tissue was
brittle and greyish in colour. The same was excised as much as possible.
The upper end of the femur was not
having any muscle attachment and it was avascular.
The trochanteric region was curetted
which was filled with necrotic tissue. The head was removed from the stem. It
was not shiny.
The acetabulum was covered with
thick whitish fibrous tissue which was not bleeding on cut. The granulation and
fibrous tissue was cleared and cup exposed. There was erosion of Acetabular
wall superiorly. It was tapped out gently and removed. The granulation tissue
was curetted out till it started oozing in the floor of acetabulum.
The fibrous tissue was excised as
much as possible. The upper end of the femur was osteotomized in form of window
and stem was removed. There was no bleeding in the medullary canal. A portion
of the bone was taken for biopsy. Good wash was given and the window was closed
with stainless steel wire. Wound closed in layers with DT. Foam traction was
given. Curetted material from acetabulum and gluteal region was sent for
Histo pathological examination
Fig.3 Glutei found necrosed &
fibrosed which is brittle
& Fig.4 Upper
end of femur without any muscle attachment
Greyish white in colour
and found Avascular
Fig.5 Fibrosed being excised as much
Fig.6 Removed MOM Prosthesis
Fig.7 X-ray taken after Stage 1
Reasons for 2 Stage procedure:
The entire hip area was occupied by
greyish brittle soft tissue (ALVAL Lesion). No delineation of the soft tissue
namely the gluteus medius and the rotators. The entire muscles are necrosed.
As the earlier clinical,
radiological and lab investigation do not reveal any evidence of infection, the
materials were sent for to conform,
Evidence of metal arthrosis (ALVAL).
The upper third of the femur was
So the surgery was not preceded.
The patient after the Stage 1
procedure was put on foam traction allowing soft tissues to resolve.
Now, as there is no evidence of
infection, both culture and Histo pathological study and it is decided to
revise the surgery with
Proximal femur reconstruction.
Solution to prevent loosening or rotation of stem.
Stage 2 Procedure:
Under GA, with Patient in Right
lateral position with Left hip facing up, with the same incision left hip
region was exposed. The upper end of femur looks better than what it was
earlier. The acetabulum was cleaned & reamed up to 48mm. 48 shell was
driven home with good version & 40 degrees abduction. The cup fixation was
augmented with 3 screws. Trail liner was fixed & was found satisfactory.
Femur- The Greater Trochanter
absent. Having Lesser Trochanter as a land mark, the femoral canal was reamed
up to 14.5. The trail 15 stem with Calcar trial reduction was done with 0 size
head. It was stable & satisfactory.
Hip dislocated. The trial stem
removed & fixed with 15 size solution stem. 0 size trial head as fixed to
the solution stem & hip reduced & found hip was stable. The trail liner
was removed & replaced with constrained liner and it was stable. The selected
28 size head was fixed to the stem.
The augmenting liner was held to the
neck. The liner was well cleaned. The groove in the constrained liner was
cleaned & found satisfactory. The hip is reduced & keeping the head
& neck perpendicular to the cup it was tapped nicely so that the head was
driven in. Now the head is in good place. The augmenting ring was driven in to
the groove of the liner. It was holding nicely. Hip movements tested & are
stable. The window of the upper end of femur was placed back and held with S.S wire.
Wound wash was given. The soft tissue was double breasted over the prosthesis.
The rest of the wound is closed in layers with DT.
Fig.10 Upper end of Femur with good
Constrained acetabulum in place
Fig.12 Upper end of femur
reconstructed and trail fitting done Fig.13
Femoral implant in place with constrained
Fig.14 Fitting of the selected
Fig.15 Revised THA
Fig. 16 X-ray taken immediately after
second stage Procedure
After the second stage procedure,
patient was very comfortable with minimal pain and improved. Patient retained
the abduction and adduction movements. Active mobilization of Non- weight
bearing walking with walker was started on the 3rd post operative day.
Alternate day dressing of the wound was done. The wound seemed very healthy.
With all the above improvement it was decided to discharge the patient on the
7th day after dressing.
On the 7th day, there was slight ooze
from the postero-lateral aspect of the wound. Immediately 2 sutures were
removed and the ooze was cleaned. Good wound wash was given. Dressing was done.
The ooze seemed to be serous discharge. It was sent for culture and
sensitivity. The stay of the patient in the hospital was prolonged. The reports
came out negative for any growth. It was proved to be serous discharge,
probably because of the reaction of the soft tissues to the Metal. Everyday
dressing was done. The surrounding wound healed well, but wound gaping was
present in the postero-lateral aspect and serous discharge continued to ooze
Apart from the serous discharge, the
patient recovered very well. She was comfortable with minimal pain. She was
able to do Non- weight bearing walking with walker. On the 14th day post
operatively, all the sutures were removed and patient was decided to be
discharged from the hospital. The surrounding wound was very healthy. But still
everyday dressing was done at home. She was reviewed periodically at the hospital
and the serous discharge was sent to lab for culture and sensitivity
1 month postoperatively, the patient was called for review. Serous discharge
has reduced to about 50% when compared to the earlier condition. Patient was
made to do weight bearing walking with walker. She was very comfortable walking
without any pain. Her movements over her hip and knee were restored. Continuous
follow-up of the patient was done. Patient at present is very comfortable.